Medusa, Monstrosity, and the Patriarchy
The real story of Medusa may not be what you think it is. I remember reading the story of Medusa, or at least one version of it, in my father’s edition of Bullfinch’s Mythology when I was a child. I glanced over the story again when studying Ovid’s Metamorphoses in Classics at school. But as will be the case with many of my generation, the most powerful and lasting image in my mind of the dread Gorgon is that impressed upon it in the cinema back in 1981, when I went to see Clash of the Titans and saw the Medusa portrayed by one of Ray Harryhausen’s famous stop-frame animations.
So my first meeting with the Medusa was as a monster mediated through the lens of the patriarchal hero myth.
The Serpent Goddess
In his seminal work The Masks of God, mythologist and psychoanalytic theorist Joseph Campbell postulates that Medusa partakes of the long and ancient tradition of serpent goddesses. But he fails to discuss one of the most fundamental aspects of her story. That is the story of her transformation. Because the Medusa wasn’t always a monster. It’s my proposition that the only monstrous aspect of her myth is how she’s formulated according to an oppressive system of patriarchal values.
The central motif in the real story of Medusa, the heart of the Medusa myth, is rape.
Before we unpack that statement, let’s just look at the history of the myth itself.
The Gorgon Sisters
It’s in the Theogony of Hesiod that we first meet any mention of the Medusa. She’s one of the Gorgon sisters, along with Sthenno and Euryale. Hesiod relates that these three Gorgons lived…
…beyond famed Oceanus at the world’s edge hard by Night.
In this earliest tale, Medusa is very beautiful, the most alluring of the three. But there’s not much more to find in Hesiod, and he makes only passing mention of her later fate.
The main source of the myth as we have it today comes to us in Ovid’s Metamorphoses. It’s in this account from Ovid that we find the first indications of what the real story of Medusa might be.
Medusa once had charms; to gain her love
A rival crowd of envious lovers strove.
They, who have seen her, own, they ne’er did trace
More moving features in a sweeter face.
Yet above all, her length of hair, they own,
In golden ringlets wav’d, and graceful shone.
Her Neptune saw, and with such beauties fir’d,
Resolv’d to compass, what his soul desir’d.
In chaste Minerva’s fane, he, lustful, stay’d,
And seiz’d, and rifled the young, blushing maid.
The bashful Goddess turn’d her eyes away,
Nor durst such bold impurity survey;
But on the ravish’d virgin vengeance takes,
Her shining hair is chang’d to hissing snakes.
These in her Aegis Pallas joys to bear,
The hissing snakes her foes more sure ensnare,
Than they did lovers once, when shining hair.
~ Ovid. Metamorphoses. The Dryden Translation.
In summary, Medusa, a beautiful young maiden, is worshiping in the temple of Minerva (or Athena) when the god Neptune (or Poseidon) rapes her. She is punished for desecrating the temple. She is turned into a monster; her head a mess of phallic snakes, whose gaze turns men to stone.
Medusa’s Head and the Exploits of Perseus
The following stories in which the Medusa appears center on the exploits of the hero, Perseus. He was sent to destroy Medusa and decapitated her. From her neck sprang the winged horse, Pegasus. From every drop of blood that fell from her open wound, a venomous snake sprang into life. Perseus kept her severed head and used its petrifying gaze to his advantage in many later adventures. The goddess Minerva then used the head as the central motif on the aegis of her shield to thwart her enemies in battle. One curious and somewhat telling modern manifestation of the Medusa’s head is in the logo of the fashion company, Versace, where she’s portrayed as a beautiful woman in the pre-curse period, with a head of ringlets rather than snakes.
So much for the history of the myth. There remains at the heart of the real story of Medusa, the pivotal act without which there would be no story of the Medusa at all: her rape by Neptune.
Medusa and Sexual Stigma
The stigmatization of female sexuality and the blaming of women for the consequences of male lust is still widespread in our society today. Few rape cases come to trial and of those that do fewer still result in prosecution. The woman often takes the blame for “provoking” the man either by her dress, her words, or her attitude. Once “provoked”, the man is relieved of all ethical responsibility. It’s even harder to prove a case of rape within marriage as the woman is still considered culturally – if no longer in law – to be the husband’s property, and he has “his rights.”
Institutionalized Misogyny in World Religions
Whatever their so-called “sophisticated theologians” and “liberal” followers may protest, in the dominant world religions such as Judaism, Islam and Christianity, the subjugation and rape of women is embedded in myth and law. Both the Bible and the Koran are a repulsive mess of patriarchal misogyny.
The “Good Book” is riddled with examples of God not only condoning rape, but ordering it. The following quotations are from the King James version.
Their children also shall be dashed to pieces before their eyes; their houses shall be spoiled, and their wives ravished.
~ Isaiah 13:16
For I will gather all nations against Jerusalem to battle; and the city shall be taken, and the houses rifled, and the women ravished; and half of the city shall go forth into captivity, and the residue of the people shall not be cut off from the city.
~ Zechariah 14:2
These are not isolated and rare examples. The God of the Old Testament also condones taking young girls as sex slaves (Numbers 31: 7-18), the buying and selling of women and children (Exodus 21:7) and the forced marriage of the victim of rape to her rapist (Deuteronomy 22:28-29).
Women fare little better under Allah.
Your women are a tilth for you (to cultivate) so go to your tilth as ye will.
~ Koran. 2:223
The New Testament doesn’t serve woman well, either:
A woman should learn in quietness and full submission. I do not permit a woman to teach or to have authority over a man; she must be quiet. For Adam was formed first, then Eve. And Adam was not the one deceived; it was the woman who was deceived and became a sinner.
~ 1 Timothy 2:11-14
No surprises there. We know the ancient cultures were founded on slavery and warfare under patriarchal leadership. This applies not only to the ancient Semitic and Arabic cultures, but every bit as much to the Roman and the Greek. The Roman Empire was ruled over globally by a necessarily male Caesar, and locally by an exclusively male system of governance down to the paterfamilias – the patriarchal head of the household. In the laws of ancient Greece and Rome, women could be bought and sold, as could children, and had no rights in law over their own sexuality or reproduction.
Historically these expansionist and imperialist patriarchal cultures have influenced the social structures and laws of the modern West.
So it’s in this context we must read the myth of the Medusa.
A Feminist Perspective
Whilst the second wave feminist campaigns of the 60s and 70s resulted in changes in the law across Europe and America, in real terms cultural conditions have changed little. Public attitudes toward rape still center on the notion of female provocation, victimization of the perpetrator, and the tendency to disregard the woman’s evidence as hysterical manipulation.
The patriarchal tendency to punish the victim of rape rather than the perpetrator has, as we can see in the myth of Medusa, ancient origins. It’s interesting that the goddess Minerva curses the Medusa with her punishment. How can a goddess be enacting the will of the male dominated society? To understand that, it’s worth bearing in mind that Minerva was a virgin Queen – very much in the style of the Blessed Virgin Mary in that her de-sexualized nature was the source of her power and virtue. She is one of the three ideal states of womanhood as seen through the lens of male domination, wherein she must be a nurturing mother, a spotless virgin, or an insatiable whore. Minerva’s response to the rape of Medusa might have been very different had the myth been invented by a woman.
Patriarchy is cunning in the way it encourages and educates women to denigrate one another in competition for the benefits of male approval.
The Voice of Medusa
Women’s voices are unheard in the classical mythological traditions which have so influenced the literature, social structure, law and politics of the Western world. Our society has been formed by the convergence of several cultures which venerate mythology as a revelation of the divine will, and as the final recourse in the quest for authority. Combining the credence given to mythological messages by religious belief with the inherent psycho-emotive power of mythological imagery is a dangerous game.
One of the messages in the myth, the real story of Medusa, is her powerlessness as a woman. In neither her rape or its consequences does she have any agency. She has no choice but to submit to the hand of fate.
Medusa is silent in the myth.
She’s blamed for the sexual violence dispensed to her. There is no mention of her suffering, no discourse on her trauma. This reflects the true experience of many women forced to submit to sexual violence. Many women report feelings of self-hatred and self-blame after the experience of rape, and that they cannot, dare not, speak out against their aggressors. Even in the more modern and supposedly feminist contexts within fiction, the notion that rape is the woman’s problem, something she must resolve alone, is still prevalent. In fact, that’s one reason, after starting out as a fan I came to dislike the Buffy the Vampire Slayer TV show.
The show is often touted as a feminist reworking of the old horror tropes, and Buffy as a role model for young women. But when the vampire Spike attempts to rape her in her bathroom, he gets away with it, she mentions it to no-one, and later becomes his lover (“Seeing Red” Episode 19, Series 6). While that may be an exact representation of the horrid facts of many young women’s experience, it receives no explanation in the show, and is a set-up I would not want my daughter to emulate.
The Real Story of Medusa
In our global culture, despite some forward progress, from the most ancient to the most recent expressions, women are still portrayed as mothers, maidens or monsters; and in each case they are idolized, damaged, or destroyed by the ruling patriarchal power.
It’s time to retell the myth of the Medusa, to tell her real story, to remove the conspiracy of silence – and to let Medusa speak.
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